China’s intellectual property protection has always been harshly criticized by many countries. In fact, there is an Outline of the National Intellectual Property Strategy Issued by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China on June 5, 2008.
This Outline is formulated for the purpose of improving China’s capacity to create, utilize, protect and administer intellectual property, making China an innovative country and attaining the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
(1) Since the reform and opening up policy was introduced, China has maintained a sustainable and rapid economic and social development, and has made advances in science and technology and cultural creations, while the capacity for innovation has been constantly improved, and knowledge is playing an increasingly prominent role in China’s economic and social development. China is now experiencing a new historical beginning, and it is of great strategic importance for the country to develop and utilize knowledge-based resources in order to transform the pattern of economic development, ease the constraints posed by demand for resources and environmental concerns, improve the nation’s core competitiveness and meet the increasing material and cultural demands of the people.
(2) Intellectual property system is a basic system for developing and utilizing knowledge-based resources. By reasonably determining people’s rights to certain knowledge and other information, the intellectual property system adjusts the interests among different groups of persons in the process of creating and utilizing knowledge and information, encourages innovation and promotes economic and social progress. In the world today, with the development of the knowledge-based economy and economic globalization, intellectual property is becoming increasingly a strategic resource in national development and a core element in international competitiveness, an important supporting force in building an innovative country and the key to hold the initiative in development. The international community attaches greater importance to intellectual property as well as innovation. Developed countries take innovation as the main impetus driving economic development, and make full use of the intellectual property system to maintain their competitive advantages. Developing countries actively adopt intellectual property policies and measures suitable for their respective national conditions to promote development.
(3) With years of development, China has been gradually improving its system of laws and regulations on intellectual property and constantly strengthening the enforcement level. Meanwhile, the intellectual property quantity has increased rapidly and their performance has constantly improved. Market entities have also made steady progress in improvement of their capacity to utilize intellectual property. China has expanded international exchanges in the field of intellectual property and increased its influence in international intellectual property affairs. The establishment and implementation of the intellectual property system have helped standardize China’s market order, stimulated inventions and cultural creations, promoted China’s opening up and importation of knowledge resources, and played an important role in China’s economic and social development. However, China’s intellectual property regime still needs improvement. The quality and quantity of the self-relied intellectual property still cannot meet the demands of economic and social development; the public awareness of the importance of intellectual property is comparatively weak; the capacity of market entities to utilize intellectual property is not very strong; infringement of intellectual property is still a relatively serious problem; there are still some cases of abuse of intellectual property; the intellectual property service and support system and training for all types of intellectual property personnel lag behind its development; and the role of intellectual property in promoting economic and social development needs to be strengthened.
(4) Implementing the national intellectual property strategy to greatly promote China’s capacity in creation, utilization, protection and administration of intellectual property will help improve China’s capacity for independent innovation and aid in efforts to make China an innovative country. It will also be conducive to improving China’s socialist market economy, standardizing market order and encourage the society to be more creditworthy. It will also increase the market competitiveness of Chinese enterprises and strengthen the core competitiveness of the country. Finally, it will facilitate China’s opening up further to the outside world, thereby leading to a win-win situation between China and the rest of the world. We must implement this intellectual property strategy an important national strategy and we must step up efforts in the area of intellectual property.
II. Guiding Principles and Strategic Goals
1. Guiding Principles
(5) In implementing the national intellectual property strategy, we need to follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of “Three Represents”, comprehensively apply the Scientific Outlook on Development and abide by the policy of encouraging creation, effective application, legal protection and scientific administration. We must concentrate our efforts to improve the intellectual property system, actively work to create a favorable legal environment, market environment and cultural environment for the development of intellectual property in order to greatly improve China’s capacity to create, utilize, protect and administer intellectual property. This will provide strong support for the effort to make China an innovative country and develop a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
2. Strategic Goals
(6) By 2020, China will become a country with a comparatively high level in terms of the creation, utilization, protection and administration of IPRs. The legal environment for IPRs is much better, market entities are much better at the creation, utilization, protection and administration of IPRs, the public awareness of intellectual property is increased greatly, the quality and quantity of the self-relied intellectual property are able to effectively support the effort to make China an innovative country, the role of the intellectual property system in promoting economic development, the culture prosperity and social progress in China become very apparent.
(7) Goals for the next five years:
– The level of the self-relied intellectual property will be higher by a large margin and the quantity of intellectual property will be greater. China will rank among the advanced countries of the world in terms of the annual number of patents for inventions granted to the domestic applicants, while the number of overseas patent applications filed by Chinese applicants should greatly increase. A number of world-famous brands will emerge. The proportion of the GDP accounted for by the value of core copyright industries will greatly increase. China should own the rights to a number of high-quality new varieties of plants and high-level layout-designs of integrated circuits. Trade secrets, geographical indications, genetic resources, traditional knowledge as well as folklores will be effectively protected and reasonably utilized.
– The benefits of utilizing intellectual property rights (IPRs) will be increased significantly and the proportion of products rich in IPRs should grow significantly. Enterprises should make progress in improving their system for managing intellectual property, invest more in the area of intellectual property and significantly improve their capacity to utilize intellectual property in market competition. A number of preponderant enterprises with famous brands, core intellectual property and rich experience in utilizing the intellectual property system will emerge.
– The protection of IPRs will be significantly improved. Infringement of IPRs, such as piracy and counterfeiting, should be significantly reduced, the expense of protecting intellectual property right willdecrease a great deal and abuse of intellectual property should be effectively curbed.
– The awareness of the IPRs in society, especially among market entities, will be greatly enhanced and a favorable intellectual property culture should be basically formed.
III. Strategic Focuses
1. Improving the Intellectual Property Regime
(8) Laws and regulations concerning IPRs need to be improved. Special intellectual property laws, such as the Patent Law, Trademark Law and Copyright Law, and related regulations need to be promptly revised. Legislation concerning genetic resources, traditional knowledge, folklores and geographical indications should be formulated as needed. The uniformity and coordination of intellectual property legislation need to be strengthened to improve the practicability of laws and regulations. Intellectual property-related provisions contained in laws and regulations concerning unfair competition, foreign trade, science and technology and national defense need to be improved.
(9) The intellectual property law enforcement and administration systems need to be strengthened. The judicial protection and administrative law-enforcement systems need to be strengthened, while judicial protection of IPRs should play its leading role. The efficiency and level of law-enforcement need to be improved and public services need to be strengthened. The reform of the intellectual property administration system needs to be continued to establish a system that matches powers with responsibilities, divides work in a rational way, fosters scientific decision-making and ensures smooth enforcement and effective supervision.
(10) The guiding role of intellectual property in economic, cultural and public policies needs to be strengthened. More efforts need to be adopted to improve coordination between intellectual property policy and the policies of industry, region, science and technology and trade. Intellectual property policy suitable for the development of relevant industries needs to be formulated to promote adjustment and optimization of industrial structures. Measures need to be taken in line with the different features of regional development to improve intellectual property support policy and foster economies suitable to the region and thus promote balanced regional economic development. Establish intellectual property working mechanism for important scientific and technological projects to provide comprehensive services throughout the process with the focus on the acquisition and protection of intellectual property. Intellectual property policy related to foreign trade needs to be improved. The mechanisms for administering intellectual property, early warning and emergency response, overseas IPRs protection and dispute settlement need to be established and strengthened in foreign trade sector. Coordination and uniformity between intellectual property policy and policies of culture, education, science and health need to be strengthened to safeguard the right of the public to legally and rationally utilize innovation findings and information in their cultural, educational, scientific and public health activities, promote the fair sharing of innovation and information, and ensure that the government is able to deal with public crises.
2. Promoting the Creation and Utilization of Intellectual Property
(11) We need to guide and support market entities to create and utilize intellectual property through the use of policies related to finance, investment, government procurement, industrial development, energy and environmental protection. The guiding role of intellectual property policies in scientific innovation activities needs to be strengthened. Technological innovation will take legal industrialization as the basic precondition, and make the acquisition of IPRs as its goal, with being accepted by the technical standards as its endeavor direction. The right ownership and benefit sharing mechanisms for scientific and technological inventions made as part of state-supported projects need to be improved. Indicators of IPRs need to be included into the systems for assessing the implementation of scientific and technological plans and the performance of state-owned enterprises. Raise the proportion of exportation of the goods rich in intellectual property step by step. Promote fundamental changes in the trade growth pattern and optimize trade structure.
(12) We need to encourage enterprises to be the principal entity in the creation and utilization of intellectual property. Independent innovation is encouraged to acquire IPRs and be commercialized and industrialized, and enterprises are guided to realize the market value of their IPRs through rights transferring, licensing, pledging or other means. Higher education institutions and scientific research institutes need to be encouraged to play important roles in the creation of intellectual property. Choose some important technological areas to create a number of core self-relied intellectual properties and technical standards. Encourage the public to take part in in innovations and cultural creations. Promote the creation of excellent cultural products.
3. Strengthening the Protection of IPRs
(13) Revise laws and regulations to punish infringements on IPRs and strengthen judicial punishment. Help right holders to improve consciousness and capacity to protect their own interests. Lower the cost of right enforcement. Increase the cost of infringements. Curb infringements effectively.
4. Preventing Abuses of IPRs
(14) Formulate relevant laws and regulations d to reasonably define the scope of intellectual property. Prevent abuses of intellectual property. Maintain fair market competition. Safeguard the public lawful rights and interests.
5. Fostering a Culture of IPRs
(15) Strengthen the knowledge propagation on intellectual property right and increase the awareness of intellectual property right in the whole society. Carry out the ordinary intellectual property right education extensively. Increase the intellectual property right content in the national promotion of the public moral culture and the national ordinary education in law. By advocating the moral concepts of being proud of innovation and honesty and ashamed of plagiarism and counterfeiting or cheating, the intellectual property right culture could be established throughout China, characterized by respect for knowledge, enthusiasm for innovation and creation, being honest and obeying law.
IV. Specific Tasks
(16) Make advanced development plans according to the nation’s strategic needs in some sectors such as biology, medicine, information, new materials, advanced manufacturing, new energy, oceanography, resources, environmental protection, modern agriculture, modern transportation, aeronautics and astronautics, and to obtain a group of patents in these core areas of technology to support the development of China’s new and high technology industries.
(17) Formulate and improve policies related to standards and to regulate the process of turning a patent into a standard. Enterprises and industry organizations should be supported in actively participating in the formulation of international standards.
(18) Refine the system of service inventions and establish an interest distribution system that can both help stimulate service inventions and speed up exploitation of patented technologies.
(19) Improve the patent examination procedure and the quality of examination according to the requirements for granting patents. Irregular patent applications need to be prevented.
(20) Balance the need for patent protection and the need to protect public interest properly. While strengthening patent right protection in accordance with law, we need to improve the compulsory licensing system and make good use of exception provisions. We need to work out relevant policies that are rational to ensure that the public is able to obtain necessary products and services in a timely and sufficient manner whenever a public crisis happens.
(21) Protect the lawful rights and interests of trademark holders and consumers effectively. Strengthen our capacity to enforce the law and take strict measures for curbing counterfeiting and other infringements to maintain fair competition and good order in the market.
(22) Support enterprises in carrying out their trademark strategies and encourage them to utilize their own trademarks in business activities. Enterprises should be encouraged to enrich the meaning of their trademarks, increase the added value and improve the reputation of their trademarks, and establish their well-known trademarks. Enterprises should also be encouraged to register their trademarks overseas, to protect rights and interests in their trademarks, and to participate in international competition.
(23) Make full use of trademarks in the industrialization of agriculture. Market entities need to be helped to register and use their trademarks to improve the quality of their farm products, ensure food safety and raise the added value of their farm products and their competitiveness on the market.
(24) Enhance the administration of trademarks. Efficiency of trademark examination needs to be improved, the time for examination needs to be shortened, and the quality of examination needs to be improved. Market rules need to be respected, and issues related to the determination of well-known trademarks, famous trademarks, well-known commodities, famous-brand products and high quality brands need to be truly solved.
(25) Assist the development of copyright-related industries such as the press and publication, radio, film, television, literature and the arts, cultural entertainment, advertising design, arts and crafts, computer software and information networks. We need to support the creation of works with clear national features and characteristics of the times. We need to assist in the creation of excellent cultural works that that have difficulties in market competition.
(26) Further improve relevant systems to promote the commercialization of copyrights. Systems for copyright mortagagerecordation of works and transfer contracts need to be further improved to broaden the ways of copyright utilization and reduce the costs and risks involved in copyright transactions. The roles of copyright collective administration organizations, industrial associations, agencies and other intermediary organizations need to be brought into full play in the process of commercializing copyrights.
(27) Deal with piracy according to law. Intensify the punishment against piracy, focusing on curbing the large-scale production, selling and dissemination of pirated products to effectively reduce copyright piracy.
(28) Adopt effective measures to address challenges brought about to copyright protection by the development of the Internet and other new technologies. Properly balance the need for copyright protection and the need for information dissemination. We must protect copyrights in accordance with law while at the same time promoting the dissemination of information.
4. Trade secret
(29) Guide market entities in establishing a trade secret management system in accordance with law. The behavior of stealing trade secret should be severely punished in accordance with law. Properly balance the need for protecting trade secret and the freedom to choose employment and balance non-competition undertaken by insiders and the need for normal personnel flow to safeguard employees’ lawful rights and interests.
5. New Varieties of Plants
(30) Establish an incentive mechanism to support the cultivation of new varieties of plants and to facilitate the transformation of innovation findings in breeding into new plant variety rights. A number of breeding bases holding rights in new varieties of plants need to be established. Technology support systems related to new varieties of plants needs to be set up and improved. The work of formulating the guidelines for the conduct of tests of new varieties of plants needs to be expedited. The examination and testing level needs to be raised.
(31) Make the balance of interests among resource suppliers, breeders, producers and business operators more rational, with the emphasis on the protection of lawful rights and interests of farmers. Strengthen the awareness of the need to protect the new plant variety rights among breeding bases and farmers to ensure that the variety rights owners, producers and sellers of new varieties and farmers are all benefited.
6. Intellectual Property in Specific Areas
(32) Improve the protection system for geographical indications. A system of technical standards, a quality guarantee system and an examination system for geographical indications need to be established and strengthened. Carry out a thorough survey of geographical indication resources and give support to products of geographical indications. Promote the transformation of natural and humanistic advantages with regional characteristics into practical productivity.
(33) Strengthen the protection, development and utilization systems for genetic resources to prevent loss and inappropriate use of them. Balance interests between the need to protect genetic resources and the need to develop and utilize them, and to develop a reasonable mechanism for genetic resource access and benefit sharing . We must guarantee the right of prior-informed consent enjoyed by suppliers of genetic resources.
(34) Establish a sound protection system for traditional knowledge. Support the collation and passing down of traditional knowledge to further its development. A coordination mechanism for administration, protection and utilization of IPRs for traditional medicine needs to be improved and the protection, development and utilization of traditional arts need to be strengthened.
(35) Strengthen the protection of folklores and to promote their development. Extensively gather folklores and set up a benefit sharing mechanism that will assure a reasonable balance between conservators of folklores and those who use those resources to create new works, in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of individuals and communities.
(36) Make the utilization of exclusive rights for layout-designs of integrated circuits more effective and thus promote the development of the integrated circuit industry.
7. IPRs Related to National Defense
(37) Establish a unified coordination and administration mechanism for intellectual property related to national defense, particularly focusing on the resolution of major issues such as ownership and benefit distribution, compensation for use, incentive mechanism and effective exploitation of technologies in emergencies.
(38) Improve the administration of intellectual property related to national defense. The administration of intellectual property needs to cover all links in national defense, including research, production, operation, equipment procurement and guarantee, and project management, and control of major intellectual property related to national defense should be strengthened. A guideline to key technologies needs to be published. Create a number of the self-relied intellectual property in areas such as key technologies for weapons and military equipment and high technologies for both military and civilian purposes. An early warning mechanism for intellectual property related to national defense needs to be established, and special examinations of IPRs related to national defense should be carried out in military technology cooperation and arms trade.
(39) Make more effective use of intellectual property related to national defense. The rules for keeping secrecy and declassification of intellectual property related to national defense need to be further improved. Promote the use of intellectual property related to national defense for civilian purposes with the condition that national security and the interests of national defense are not compromised. Encourage the use of intellectual property for civilian purposes in the area of national defense.
V. Strategic Measures
1. Increasing the Capacity to Create Intellectual Property
(40) Establish a market-oriented system for the creation of self-relied intellectual property with enterprises as the backbone of the system and manufacturers, universities and research institutes as close cooperation partners. Enterprises need to be guided to search intellectual property information before starting their own research and development projects or business operations. Enterprises need also be supported in their efforts to form the self-relied intellectual property and strengthen their capacity to transform innovations into intellectual property through original innovation, joint innovation and secondary innovation based on imported technologies. Enterprises as well as other market entities should also be encouraged to obtain intellectual property overseas. Enterprises need to be guided to change the way they compete , improve technological innovation, raise the quality of their products and services and create their own well-known brands.
2. Encouraging the Commercialization and Utilization of IPRs
(41) Guide more innovative elements towards enterprises, support the commercialization of innovations made by high education institutions and research institutes to enterprises, stimulate the application and industrialization of intellectual property in enterprises, and shorten the time for applying it in industrial production. We need to launch various kinds of pilot or demonstration projects for intellectual property, and to improve the overall capacity to utilize intellectual property and handle competition in intellectual property.
(42) Encourage and support market entities to improve their management systems for technological data and trade secrets, and to establish a value assessment, a statistics and an accounting system for intellectual property. They are also encouraged to work out an information search system for intellectual property and an early-warning system for major events, and improve the system for administration of intellectual property in foreign cooperation.
(43) Encourage market entities to actively respond to intellectual property infringements and lawsuits in accordance with law, and to improve their capacity for handling intellectual property disputes.
3. Expediting the Development of the Legal System for Intellectual Property
(44) Establish a legislation mechanism in line with the characteristics of intellectual property, improve the quality of legislation and speed up the legislation process. Improve foresight studies before intellectual property legislation is formulated and the assessment work after enactment. Legislation needs to be more transparent, and more channels need to be available for enterprises, industrial associations and the public to participate in legislation. Revisions and legislative interpretations of intellectual property laws need to be improved in order to deal with new problems in the intellectual property sector promptly and effectively. Studies on the necessity and feasibility of formulating basic intellectual property laws need to be carried out.
4. Improving Intellectual Property Law Enforcement
(45) Improve the trial system for intellectual property, optimize the allocation of judicial resources and simplify remedy procedures. Studies need to be carried out on establishing special tribunals to handle civil, administrative or criminal cases involving intellectual property. Studies also need to be done to reasonably centralize jurisdiction over cases involving patents or other cases of a highly technical nature. Explore issues on setting up courts of appeal for cases involving intellectual property. Judicial organs for handling cases involving intellectual property need to be further strengthened and well-staffed to improve the handling of cases and enforcement of the law.
(46) Judicial interpretation on intellectual property needs to be improved. Cases involving intellectual property require more professional knowledge, and therefore a sound litigation system needs to be established that includes judicial authentication, expert witnesses and technical investigation, and the system of provisional measures prior to action involving intellectual property needs to be improved. Procedures for determining and granting patent or trademark rights need to be reformed, and studies need to be conducted on transforming bodies that hear patent invalidation and trademark review and adjudication cases to quasi-judicial organs.
(47) Improve the overall competence of intellectual property law-enforcement personnel and reasonably distribute law-enforcement resources to improve the efficiency of law enforcement. Special, well-planned and focused actions for the protection of intellectual property should be launched in cases of repeated intellectual property infringements, organized intellectual property infringements and large-scale counterfeiting and piracies. Administrative law-enforcement departments need to speed up the referral of criminal cases involving intellectual property to judicial organs, and judicial organs should make greater efforts to receive criminal cases involving intellectual property.
(48) Customs law enforcement and border protection of intellectual property need to be strengthened to maintain order in import and export and improve the reputation of China’s export commodities. International cooperation in customs law enforcement needs to be fully utilized in order to effectively crack down on cross-border illegal acts and crimes involving intellectual property. Customs need to have a influence on international intellectual property protection.
5. Strengthening the Administration of Intellectual Property
(49) Formulate and implement regional and industrial strategies on intellectual property. A mechanism for reviewing intellectual property for important economic events needs to be established and strengthened. Projects for creation and industrialization of the self-relied intellectual property need to be supported as they meet the demand of economic and social development.
(50) More human resources are needed to administer intellectual property, professional training needs to be enhanced so as to raise the competence of personnel needs. People’s governments at or above the county level may establish intellectual property administration departments in line with their respective economic and social development.
(51) The systems for examination and registration of intellectual property need to be improved to increase capacity building, optimize procedures, improve efficiency, reduce administrative cost and upgrade the level of public services involving intellectual property.
(52) Develop a national public service platform for basic information on intellectual property. High-quality databases of basic intellectual property information should be developed that include patents, trademarks, copyrights, layout-designs of integrated circuits, new varieties of plants and geographical indications. Accelerate the development of a common search system suitable for Chinese search practices. Agencies to test and preserve new varieties of plants need to be improved. An information platform for intellectual property related to national defense needs to be established. Guide and support the development of intellectual property information databases in various regions and sectors that meet their own needs. Intellectual property system and resource integration and information sharing need to be promoted.
(53) Set up an intellectual property early-warning and emergency-response system. Issue report on intellectual property development trends in important sectors and work out contingency plans for disputes, conflicts or emergency situations on intellectual property that have a wide-ranging and significant impact, so that they can be dealt with in proper way and any potential damage can be controlled or reduced.
6. Developing Intermediary Services for IPRs
(54) Improve the administration of intellectual property intermediary services, make it a self-regulated industry, and establish a system for monitoring such services, including credit information management, reputation assessment and punishment recording. The practice for IPRs appraisal needs to be further regulated to increase its credibility.
(55) Establish a professional training system for intellectual property intermediary services, improve vocational training in intermediary services and standardize the administration of professional qualifications. The scope of services for an intellectual property agent and other employees in intermediary services needs to be clearly defined and studies on general lawyers acting as intellectual property agent need to be conducted. An intermediary service system for intellectual property related to national defense needs to be improved. Great efforts need to be made to improve the capacity of intermediary services to handle international applications for intellectual property, settle disputes and participate in international intellectual property affairs.
(56) Strengthen the role of industrial associations and support their intellectual property work, promote intellectual property information exchange and organize a joint effort to enforce IPRs. The government should strengthen its supervision and guidance in the intellectual property work of industrial associations.
(57) The role of the technology market needs to be strengthened and an intellectual property trading system needs to be established, which provides sufficient information, allows active trading and has an orderly environment. Trading procedures need to be simplified; the cost of trading needs to be reduced and services need to be improved.
(58) Develop commercial intellectual property information services to meet the demands of all relevant parties for intellectual property information. All sectors of society are encouraged to invest in the development of intellectual property information and enterprises are encouraged to participate in the development and utilization of intellectual property information with potential added value.
7. Developing Intellectual Property Human Resources
(59) Establish an interdepartmental coordination mechanism and make overall plans for the development of intellectual property human resources. Establishment of national and provincial intellectual property expert databases and professional information networks needs to be accelerated.
(60) Set up national education bases to train intellectual property professionals. The training of senior intellectual property tutors needs to be accelerated. A sub-discipline program on intellectual property should be set up and the higher education institutions which meet the requirements are supported to establish programs for conferring intellectual property master’s and doctor’s degrees. Large-scale training programs need to be organized to train all types of intellectual property professionals, focusing on training of urgently needed management personnel and personnel to provide intermediary services involving intellectual property.
(61) Work out training plans to provide comprehensive training on intellectual property to Party and government leaders, civil servants, managers of enterprises and institutions, technical and professional staff, writers and artists, and teachers.
(62) Improve relevant systems for attracting, exploiting and managing intellectual property professionals, improve the human resources structure and encourage reasonable mobility of personnel. In view of the implementation of the Civil Servant Law, we need to improve the civil servant administration system in intellectual property administration departments. A professional and technical assessment system for intellectual property professionals needs to be established in accordance with the overall requirements of the reform to the professional titles system of the State.
8. Promoting the Cultivation of an Intellectual Property Culture
(63) Set up a working mechanism for publicizing information about intellectual property that is led by the government and supported by the media, in which the public widely participates. The coordination mechanism needs to be improved and relevant policies and working plans need to be formulated to promote public awareness of intellectual property and the development of an intellectual property culture.
(64) Offer intellectual property courses in higher education institutions and to introduce education on intellectual property into the quality-based education to students of such institutions. A general education plan on intellectual property needs to be formulated and implemented, and intellectual property education needs to be listed into teaching plans in primary and high schools in whole China.
9. Expanding International Exchanges and Cooperation in Intellectual Property
(65) Strengthen international exchanges and cooperation in the field of intellectual property. An international information exchange mechanism for intellectual property needs to be established and strengthened. International and regional cooperation needs to be strengthened in the development and utilization of intellectual property information resources and infrastructure. Encourage international cooperation on training of intellectual property professionals. Students studying overseas under State-financed projects are guided to pursue programs related to intellectual property, whereas those funded otherwise are encouraged to do so. Highly talented intellectual property professionals should be introduced from overseas and employed in China. China needs to actively participate in the development of international intellectual property order and effectively involve itself in undertakings of international organizations.